Early in the war, the Ottomans knew the Dardanelles strait would most certainly be attacked and had prepared significant defenses. The plan drafted by the then First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill, was meant to destroy Ottoman defenses along the Dardanelles. However, Allied forces comprised of British, Irish, Australian, and New Zealand troops were unable to penetrate the Ottoman defenses, advancing only about 100 meters from the shores. The Ottomans, led by German General Liman von Sanders, further reinforced their positions. The later attempt of the British to establish a new beachhead was more successful, yet the British government refused to send significant reinforcements. In December 1915, what was certainly the most successful part of the Gallipoli offensive, the evacuation of the British forces began. The Ottomans' successful defense of the Dardanelles led to Churchill's resignation. More importantly, it bolstered the rising popularity of Mustafa Kemal, then Lieutenant Colonel, and offered hope that the Ottomans could indeed counter-balance their territorial losses. The successful defense of Gallipoli, however, convinced both Enver and Djemal that a second operation should be launched. Reinforcements arrived from Gallipoli and the Ottomans launched the second attempt in August 1916. British forces had, however, moved eastward toward Palestine, and they defeated the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Romani. The battle was the first clear British victory over the Ottomans and their German allies, resulting in a successful counter-offensive that led British General Edmund Allenby in Jerusalem. A final push with the Megiddo offensive and renewed campaign in Mesopotamia brought Entente forces even further into the Ottoman Empire. The Arab revolt has been engraved in modern memories by movies such as Lawrence of Arabia as a widespread nationalistic movement against the cruel Ottoman occupier. The reality is far more complex. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Kenneth Ray. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/098439/bk_acx0_098439_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Nazi Germany's North African defeat opened up the possibility of taking the war in the West to the European continent for the first time since France's lightning conquest by the Wehrmacht in 1940. The British and Americans debated the merits of landing in France directly in 1943, but they ultimately opted against it. Complex reasons lay behind England's successful insistence on the Mediterranean theater rather than the French theater as the scene of the next western Allied strike against Nazi Germany. Chief among these remained Britain's determination to keep a postwar empire, one that Churchill and his cabinet hoped would include Iraq and Iran, the source of oil needed to ensure that England continued to "rule the waves" with a powerful modern navy. This strategic imperative, indeed, formed the backbone of the British choice of Sicily as the target for military operations in the summer of 1943. While the Germans sent men and materiel to aid in holding the island, the Allies, though allowing the invasion force to stand idle, undertook massive preparations of their own. The logistical corps of both the American and British armies stockpiled huge amounts of food, medical supplies, ammunition, spare parts, and gasoline for their invading soldiers. Seeing to every detail, the assiduous quartermasters even accumulated a store of 144,000 condoms, a large stock of chewing gum, and a supply of rat traps to deal with vermin. Naturally, the preparations also included bombing missions over Italy ahead of an amphibious landing, and on April 4, 1943, one of the planes that took off from Libya to bomb Naples was the Lady Be Good, a B-24D Liberator bomber with a crew that had never flown a combat mission. The operation, which included over a dozen planes, was undone by poor flying conditions almost from the start, and the Lady Be Good never even made into formation with the others attacking Naples, thus flying out the mission on its o 1. Language: English. Narrator: Kenneth Ray. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/098467/bk_acx0_098467_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Kenneth Colley (born 7 December 1937) is a British actor. A long-time character actor, he came to wider prominence through his role as Admiral Piett in Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Colley was born in Manchester. He played Jesus in The Life of Brian, having also appeared in the earlier Monty Python- related production Ripping Yarns episode "The Testing of Eric Olthwaite" alongside Michael Palin. As a Shakespearean actor he played the Duke of Vienna in the BBC Television Shakespeare production of Measure for Measure in 1979.
Saucy, rude and vulgar-the 31 Carry On films remain an important part of the history of British cinematic and low brow comedy. In this book, Gerrard discusses the Carry On roots in the music halls of the Victorians and the saucy seaside postcards of Donald McGill. Made in post-war Britain, these films reflect a remarkable period of social change as the British Empire faded and a nation learned to laugh at itself. Nothing was sacred to the Carry On team. James Bond and Cleopatra were mercilessly lampooned, Miss World competitions and toilet factories came in for a cinematic pasting, while Sid James' laugh, Barbara Windsor's wiggle, Kenneth Williams' flared nostrils and Charles Hawtrey's "Oh, hello!" became synonymous with laughter, merriment and fun. Gerrard's work examines the Carry On films as part of a wider canvas linking both their heritage and tradition to the contextual world they mirrored. The Carry On Films is an essential read for Carry On fans the country through. <, Ding dong! Carry On!
The role of proprietorships or 'private' colonies in imperial development has not received the attention it deserves, notwithstanding recent scholarly emphasis on 'state-building'. The continued use of these 'private' devices, even as early modern European nation-states grew more potent, is not only interesting; but is indeed normative though invariably missing from modern studies of empire. This collection provides in-depth analyses of the workings of the proprietorships themselves (rather than proprietary colonies) and in studies ranging from South Carolina to Nieuw Nederland to French West Africa to Brasil, broadens this discussion beyond British North America. Contributors include: Mickael Augeron, Kenneth Banks, Sarah Barber, Philip Boucher, Olivier Caporossi, Leslie Choquette, David Dewar, Jaap Jacobs, Maxine N. Lurie, Debra A. Meyers, L.H. Roper, James O'Neil Spady, Bertrand Van Ruymbeke, Cecile Vidal, and Laurent Vidal.